Are they connected the earthquakes in Ecuador and Japan? part2

“The National Center for Earthquake Information locates about 20,000 earthquakes a year, about 55 a day . And as a result of improved communication and increased interest in natural disasters, the public now learns faster earthquakes than ever before” we read there.

“(But) an increase or temporary reduction in the seismicity is part of the natural fluctuation of frequency. And neither an increase nor a decrease globally is a clear – cut indication that a major earthquake is imminent , ” says the institution.

See also: earthquake kit list

Japan Earthquake

Musson, meanwhile, emphasizes that the earthquake in Tonga, for example, which made many think that something unusual could be happening in the Ring of Fire, was actually quite ordinary.

“Not even reached magnitude 6.0, is the kind of movement that once recorded every three days,” he told the BBC.

“The news just mentioned about what was happening (in Japan and Ecuador),” said the expert.

Waiting for the next

All this, however, does not mean that an earthquake can not help anticipate, in a way, other quakes.

First are the so – called replicas , quite common after a seismic event of great magnitude and indicative of the energy release of the activated fault.

In the case of Ecuador, for example, more than 135 had already been reported by the Geophysical Institute of the National Polytechnic School midmorning Sunday.

And, according to Musson, in some cases the energy released by earthquakes also can help advance the occurrence of earthquakes in other nearby faults .

“But only you can ‘trigger’ something that already was going to happen,” says seismologist.

“It means that if there is a fault heavily loaded due to start, maybe a nearby earthquake finished giving the final push . But like the second earthquake would possibly occur , ” he adds.

Moreover, what they can be sure Ecuadorians is that Saturday’s earthquake predicts no doubt that other major earthquakes shook the area again within years.

As Musson explains, the last major earthquakes that have occurred in the coastal area of ​​Ecuador simply have been transferring stress to different areas of that failure.

And everything indicates that stress will now make our way back.

“In 1906 there was a major earthquake in Ecuador, which broke about 1,000 kilometers of the fault affecting the coastal zone. About 40 years later there was another, on the same fault, but only broke the southern third. In 1958 there was another very similar which affected the central third. And in 1979 there was one more than hit the northern third, “Musson says.

“And Saturday’s earthquake is like a repeat of 79, in the north of the fault, so that the sequence can now start to repeat south,” said the expert.

“Although that’s something that will take decades. It will not move from overnight , ” he says.

And eventually there will be another large earthquake is something they know all those living in earthquake zones that have suffered major earthquakes.

Five Asian Countries Most Vulnerable to Natural Disasters

Five countries in Asia into the countries most vulnerable socially and economically in the event of a natural disaster.

This was revealed in a report “2nd Natural Hazards Risk Atlas” published by Maplecroft, on Wednesday (15/8). As a result of climate change and global warming, natural disasters such as floods and tropical storms occur more often complements other natural disasters such as earthquakes.

“Natural Hazards Risk Atlas” was developed by Maplecroft to help companies get information and compare the level of risk of natural disasters in 197 countries drawn from the results of the study by Maplecroft and UN OCHA (United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs).

This atlas contains 29 kinds of risk of 12 natural disasters in an interactive map, and calculate the economic and social costs of these disasters, www.whatcausesearthquakes.com

Based on the analysis of Maplecroft, countries with stronger economies have a greater resistance and more quickly recover when natural disaster strikes.

Japan, China, Taiwan and Mexico are countries that have suffered huge losses due to natural disasters totaling US $ 380 million a year ago. According to Munich Re, general insurance companies from Germany, about 55% of disaster losses last year came from the earthquake and tsunami in Japan in March, 2011. But Japan quickly recovered because they were stronger resilience.

Meanwhile, the ten countries that are socially and economically vulnerable in the event of a disaster is Bangladesh, Philippines, Dominican Republic, Myanmar, India, Viet Nam, Honduras, Laos and Haiti.

Of the ten countries, five countries namely Bangladesh, the Philippines, Myanmar, India and Viet Nam had the greatest risk. They will suffer a loss many times and will take many years to recover if they experience a disaster like the earthquake in Japan.

In addition to material losses due to the destruction of essential infrastructure, they will also bear the economic and business losses due to delayed investment, supply of tissue damage and disruption caused by natural disasters this market.

Maplecroft research also revealed an increased risk of social unrest, disruption of food safety, corruption, lawlessness and political risk throughout the country.

For example, when floods hit Thailand in 2011, Thailand has not only lost 9% of its GDP product, but also have to bear the infrastructure damage has not recovered until now. Thailand was ranked 32 in the Natural Hazards Relative Economic Exposure Index and including high-risk countries.

Flooding also affects the operation of the supply system and private companies such as the automotive industry and technology, information and communication technologies (ICT). Enterprise data storage (hard drives) would only cover two-thirds of demand last year pushed up the price of “hard disk” of up to 55%.

The floods also occurred in the Philippines recently, affecting 2.7 million people and killed at least 66 people. In the past 20 years, recorded 274 natural disasters have hit this country.

Earthquake Response action – that needs to be done during the earthquake

Of the outstanding issues is not clear who made the worry, the better we pray and surrender ourselves to God so that we are always in lindunganNya. Earthquake insurance

Here I get tips we need to do in the event of an earthquake to minimize the risk of injury or death, But despite it all, God is willing and rule over His people, if death has been greeted, none can avoid it. Subhan Allah.

Hasil gambar untuk Cara mengatasi korban luka saat gempa bumi

If an earthquake that’s all of a sudden, the following 10 tips that you can rely on wherever you are.

Inside the house

Vibration will be felt for a moment. During that time, you have to seek the safety of yourself and your family. Go to the bottom of the table to protect your body from falling objects. If you do not have a table, protect your head with a pillow. If you’re turning on the stove, then turn off immediately to prevent fire. In Indonesia, the average gas burner used is LPG which can be easily dispersed in the air, unlike with natural gas will remain above the soil surface. Therefore, if a gas leak in the quake, immediately try to open all doors, windows for the gas to get out of the house and does not trigger a fire,

Try to have a special place for storing flashlights, medicine, blankets, drinking water supply for a minimum of 2-3 days, or other objects that might be required at the time of emergency. Try also to ensure that all family members know this special place so that everyone is easy to reach.

Strive also in the house has a radio portable communication sorts of walkie talkie or HT, because it is based on experience in negara2 prone to earthquakes such as Japan, as well as the experience during the earthquake in Padang yesterday, the communications infrastructure of mobile / telephone death total, so the only thing that can be used is means of communication that uses radio waves.

In school

Take cover under the table, protect your head with a bag or a book, do not panic, if an earthquake eased out sequentially starting from the farthest distance to the door, find the field, do not stand near buildings, poles and trees.

Outside the house

Protect to you and avoid dangerous objects. In the area of ​​office or industrial areas, the danger could arise from the collapse of the glass and billboards. Protect your head with your hands, purse or anything you bring.

In buildings, malls, cinemas, and the ground floor of the mall

Do not cause panic or a victim of panic. Follow all instructions from the clerk or security guard. If often in locations like this, recognize and memorize meeting points and an emergency exit path so that you can easily save themselves if an emergency occurs.

In the elevator

Do not use elevators during an earthquake or fire. If you feel the vibrations of an earthquake while in the elevator, then press all the buttons. When the lift stop, get out, look if the situation is save and evacuate. If you are stuck in the elevator, contact the building manager to use the interphone if available.

In the train

Hold on tightly to the pole so you will not fall if the train stopped suddenly. Be calm following the explanations of the train attendant. Misunderstood information officer or station wagon will cause panic.

In the car

When a large earthquake occurs, you will feel as if your car wheels bald. You will lose control of the car and difficult to control. Stay away from the intersection, Pull your car left the road and stop. Follow the instruction from the car radio. If you have to evacuate it out of the car, leave the car unlocked.

On the mountain / beach

There is a possibility of landslides occur from the top of the mountain. Stay out straight away to safety. On the coast, the danger came from the tsunami. If you feel the vibrations and signs of tsunamis appear, quickly evacuate to high ground,

You can help

It was to be foreseen that many people will be injured during a major earthquake. Because of health workers from hospitals will have difficulty coming to the scene, then be prepared to provide first aid to people who are around you.

Listen to information

When a large earthquake occurs, the community mental hit. To prevent panic, it is important everyone be calm and act in accordance with the correct information. You can obtain information Yag right of the authorities or the police. Do not act because the information is not clear. You can also take advantage of HT such communication radio for listening to the broadcast / broadcast communications authorities through a specific frequency. But remember, this frequency is limited to communications authorities, you should not participate in it, just listen to it.

Here is how the Japanese people to save themselves from the quake, which of course should we imitate because as we all know, Japan is the country most often experienced earthquake:

  1. Japan Society diligent disaster training. Near the door, they prepare a backpack containing bottled water, dry food or canned food, medicines P3K, cash, clothes drier, radio, flashlight, and some replacement batteries. The public can add supplements, glasses, special medicines or baby food in their special bag. Earthquake rescue tools even sold in supermarkets.
  2. Disaster drills conducted regularly, and even made special subjects in elementary schools.
  3. Japan partially diinvestsasikan wealth to build earthquake-resistant buildings and infrastructure. Expensive yes, but according to experts, this policy proved to have saved thousands of lives.
  4. The local government or local government trained specifically to announce the disaster and evacuate quickly. They are also trained to distribute food and blankets at shelters.
  5. Japanese society know they have to protect the head with a strong table, so as not to fall of hard objects. Then, under cover of the table, it was, they quickly shut off the gas flow, and make sure the door remains open to reduce the risk of trapped among the wreckage.
  6. Japan’s population is recommended to save the shoes under the bed and bicycles in the yard. Shoes for securing feet from broken glass. While the bicycle is the most appropriate means of transportation during the earthquake.
  7. Japanese society to enable earthquake alert on his mobile phone. Children in schools have fire-retardant protective headgear at his desk each. Not only that, advanced earthquake simulator is also used to familiarize children with the tremor.
  8. The Government of Japan to make sure the center of nuclear energy and an electric train will automatically shut down when the earth trembled within certain limits.

Hopefully this information can add to our knowledge so we can prepare for disaster when it comes and do not forget, keep praying and surrender themselves to Allah the Most of All.

Volcano in Guatemala Erupts For 13 Hours

Mount Fuego, one of the three active volcanoes in Guatemala, Saturday, erupted.

The eruption caused lava flows and ash falls concentrated to various areas around and also threaten the capital Guatemala City.

Lava is a solution of incandescent magma flowing out of the earth through volcanic crater or through a crack (fracture). The solution will then be frozen into the rocks.

Read more: earthquake insurance california

Mount Fuego is located approximately 45 kilometers southwest of Guatemala City.

This eruption is the second time in the 2017’s.

Volcanic activity of the mountain is now back to normal and within normal limits, shortly after the eruption, which lasted for 13 hours.

It was explained David de Leon, spokesman for the National Coordination Center for Disaster Management, told AFP.

Noted, mountains with peaks as high as 3763 meters was experiencing the biggest eruption since at 11:28, Friday or Saturday at 12:28 pm.

In the evening, it began to show bursts of explosions of ash to a height of 4,500 meters above sea level, only the lower 500 meters of the eruption in the morning.

Meanwhile, the longest lava flow has now reach a distance up to 1.6 kilometers.

Although the ash could reach Guatemala City, until the news was revealed, it has not happened.

So far, there are four areas around the mountain, which is reported to have been affected by the ash from this eruption.

In addition Fuego, countries in the region of Central America has two other active volcanoes.

The mountain is in the west and Pacaya Santiaguito in the south, a distance of only 30 kilometers from the capital.

What are the Causes Landslide?

Put simply, a natural disaster is defined as a natural event that has a significant negative consequences on the population living beings. These events are quite varied, one of which is a landslide. What is a landslide? The scientists said that the definition of natural disasters landslides are geological events that marked it moves past rocks and soil in different types too kind. The main character of the landslide is the interference of gravity. Therefore, natural disasters landslides always occur in areas with a slope such as hills and mountains . But if gravity is the only cause of the landslide ? Certainly not.

See also: facts of what causes earthquakes

Causes Landslide

There are various triggers and drivers of natural disasters landslides. We summarize below for you.

Rainfall

intensity increasing rainfall will increase the chances of landslides. During the dry season, the water locked up in the soil will evaporate in large enough quantities. This then leaves the ground in a state of hollow or porous in certain circumstances will culminate in soil cracks. On entry to the rainy season, the water will then meet the cracks in the ground. Furthermore, soil will inflate / broke. But this then culminated in the emergence of lateral movement because the water accumulated at the bottom of the slope. This condition is prone to landslides, especially in those locations rarely found trees as absorbing water and soil binder.

Location The Steep

Based on the research of experts, most of the areas experiencing landslides is the point of the tilt angle reaches 180 degrees at the end of the steep slope and the horizontal longoran field.

Soil conditions

In addition to the above factors, it should be also mentioned the contribution of ground conditions increase the chances of a natural disaster landslides. The type of soil which is less dense have a greater opportunity to landslides than other soil types. Why? Because clay is easy to break easily when dry and mushy when exposed to water especially in large quantities.

Less Robust rocks

rocks less powerful also be a factor causing landslides. Land with a mixture of sand, keirkil, and a little clay is very susceptible to weathering and prone to landslides.

Land For Land

Generally, land used as fields, paddy fields, mines and others will decline qualities like mushy and tends to saturate the water. These conditions will make the land vulnerable to landslides.

Vibration

Causes of landslides
others are vibrations that can be sourced from the earthquake, machinery, vehicle traffic and others. The result is that the soil and landslides, roads were cracked and others.

Susustnya water surface of the lake.

This condition can be a prickly landslides on the slopes because the retaining force is lost. This condition is then compounded by the slope of the reservoir or lake.

There are additional expenses

When there is an additional burden is quite heavy, it is not impossible if the ground have cracks, decrease and even landslides.

The lack of trees

causes landslides
this one is certainly familiar. We are already well aware that one of the functions of trees is to lock the ground. Where a mountainous region or nearly bald, treeless slopes, in the condition of the rainy season it will be easy to landslides.

Remove Trash Gratuitous

might cause this one outside your thinking. But the habits of the people who like to throw garbage in the slopes can cause landslides. Why? For waste dumped slowly into the soil and make it solid alias fragile. This condition will be prone to landslides especially in the rainy season.

What Causes Landslide in Indonesia?

Almost every time the rains come, in our country is always tinged with the occurrence of landslides . Maybe in our minds, why this disaster continue to occur and sometimes these disasters occur not only in the rainy season .

In this article, I will attempt to explain what are the causes of landslides and some solutions that can be applied to reduce the landslide disaster what causes earthquakes facts

level Weathering

In Geological sciences , we know that the earth is at the beginning of its formation in the form of very hard rock.

As a result of the process perlapukan ( weathering ) Over time, this stone into the ground ( residual Soil ). The process of rock weathering into soil could be happening in physics (mechanical), chemical, and biological (animal and plant) in tens of thousands of years.

handling landslide

All three process can occur at the same time so that at the end of the stone can be ground.

For countries which are in the tropics, the degree (level) perlapukan these rocks were so high that in these areas we will find layers of soil ( residual soil ) is very thick.

The high degree of weathering in tropical countries such as Indonesia resulted tropical countries have high levels of rainfall and sun exposure levels are quite high as well.

Landslides that occur normally in the form of transfer of subsoil material or material forming a ramp. Perlapukan results subsoil rocks located on a slope will be very easy to fall.

Moreover there has not been weathered rock layer ( bedrock or bedrock) that is under the soil layer. This layer will be the bedrock of the land mass sliding plane on it.

So the degree of weathering the cause landslides first.

Level Rainfall
The rainwater that fell into the ground and forming a slope will cause a change to the slope.Tropical countries have high levels of rainfall will be the main cause of landslides.

Those changes, among others;

(I) the rain will increase the burden of the slopes,

(Ii) the rain water will reduce the cohesive forces (attractive forces between grains of soil) as a result of the distance between the grains merenggangnya ground, and

(iii) the water that goes down to the base layer of rock will be memperlicin bedrock so that the field be sliding plane landslides .

Let’s say that one day we experienced heavy rainfall with an intensity of about 200 mm, if 50% of rain water into the soil, it will increase the burden slope of 100 kg in the area of 1 m 2 or a force 707 Newton down the slope if the slope has a slope 45 o .

Imagine if it rains on a slope with an area of 20 m 2 , then for cases such as the above will be a force out of the slope is the cause of the landslide of 14 140 Newton or the equivalent of 1.4 tons Extra load to the outer slopes.

To avoid the water that goes into the slope, then the slope should be closed or made so that the flow of water to flow on the surface of the ground and not into the slope and not be the cause of the landslide.

Closure methods such as by spraying the slopes of cement to the slopes (shorcrete) can be done. The most simple way is to shut down the slopes with tarps and make sure rainwater does not enter into the slope.

Rainfall is the main cause of landslides in Indonesia.

Slope

Slope which has a steep slope would be more erosive than the gentle slope.

In physics, an avalanche will occur or not depends heavily on the amount of force that secures the brace or the style of rock / soil remain on the slopes and the forces out of the slope or incline attractive style material to fall down.

If the retaining force greater than the towing force landslides will not occur however when the retaining force is smaller than the towing force landslide will occur.

Style pickup out of the slope will be even greater with the increasing burden of the slope and slope.

One way to reduce the towing force is to create a gentle slope.

In addition, other solutions can be applied, but a little expensive is by installing a booster slopes form Rockbolt , Soilnail , or other forms of reinforcement. Some of our neighboring countries have installed a security method the slope.

Structural Geology
Geological conditions in the form of geological structures such as the presence of a fault ( a fault ), muscular ( Joint ), folds, directions bedding and other geological conditions cause landslides fourth.The local geological conditions also greatly affect an easy area to landslide or not.

The slopes of which are in the area of ​​active faults would be easier to slide, this is due to the condition of the rock-forming slopes that have been destroyed so that a weak zone.

Complex geological structure formed in Aceh of course influenced by plant Indo-Australian plate that is subducting under the Eurasian slopes of the province where we sit.

Tectonic style makes the deformation of rocks and rock structures such as faults stocky, and folds.

In addition, a rock slope that has a lot of muscular ( Joint ) or cracks also cause landslides types of rock falls, sliding ( sliding ) or tumble ( toppling ).

When readers see the slopes of the rock many cracks along the way, then surely someday in the area will be landslides.

Intensity Earthquakes

For the people of Indonesia earthquakes are rare events. As explained by the authors in the article Cause Earthquakes in Indonesia , in Sumatra and Java are the result of plate collision zone in the form of subduction between the Indo-Australian plate with the Eurasian plate.

Vibration earthquake that occurred could destabilize the slopes. The incidence of landslides caused by earthquakes have occurred when the earthquake July 2, 2013 in the districts of Aceh Tengah and Bener Meriah and Aceh province in Indonesia a few places.

Hopefully the article cause landslides adds reader knowledge about landslides . Standby Greetings from Syiah Kuala University academic community.

Understanding Volcanic Earthquakes and Tectonics Frequently Occurs

For those of you who are looking for references regarding the understanding of volcanic and tectonic earthquake , please see below: what causes earthquakes

illustration-seismic-volcanic

Earthquake Volcanic:

The volcanic tremor is a type of earthquake that occurred due to the activity of magma in the bowels of the earth. This earthquake was classified as fairly intensive earthquake occurred in the Indonesian archipelago has many volcanoes. Each of their previous volcanic eruptions certainly occurred vibration felt by people around the volcano. Earthquake is what is meant by volcanic earthquakes. Example: An earthquake in a mountain area Kelut before erupting.

Earthquake Tectonics:

In contrast to the volcanic, tectonic earthquake is the vibration caused by the activity of the shift plates in the earth. Tectonic earthquake occurrence is quite surprising because it always happens suddenly. No wonder the event of an earthquake tectonic great many casualties. Example: the earthquake in Yogyakarta in 2006.

Hopefully by knowing about the terms of volcanic and tectonic earthquakes above can increase our knowledge and awareness of the disaster that occurred in Indonesia.

Why Fires Occur?

Wildfires can occur because of a deliberate or accidental. Lately often fires in various areas, including fires in the mountains in Indonesia, we still remember some time ago spread the news about the fire at Mount Merbabu, Mount Sindoro, Mount Ciremai, the volcano that devour 200 hectares of forest, and also the Parang Mountains. Why fire like that could happen? Forest fires occur due to natural or intentional.

Actually “forest fire” is an event that is not accidental. According to the regulations the minister of forestry, forest fire is a situation where the forest devoured by the fire that resulted in the destruction of forests and forest products causing the loss of environmental factors or economically, while according Soeharjo, forest fires are burning the spread of flame-free and fuel consumption of nature like litter, grass, twigs / branches of dead trees that remain beridir, logs, tree stumps, weeds, shrubs, foliage and trees. Where do earthquakes mostly occur

forest fires

Intentional forest fires more accurately referred to as “burning”. Combustion is more prone to forest fires deliberate on a specific location with an area that is also predetermined.

Forest fires are the number one cause of deforestation, which is a narrowing of the forest caused by logging or other factors that cause forest area narrows. Wildfires cause greater deforestation compared with deforestation due to illegal logging. In a small-scale forest fires can be extinguished immediately, but on a larger scale, forest fires are very difficult to stop, even for a peat soil, would be more difficult because the fire will still be burning under the surface peat although the fire was successfully extinguished.

 

In general causes of forest fires occur because of natural and manmade. Fires akrena natural factors could occur due to lightning strikes, a lava flow from the volcano, or a long drought. In the case of prolonged drought, friction occurs between trees can cause sparks. 90% of the fires in Indonesia diakibatan by human actions. Fires caused by humans themselves can occur because of intentional and unintentional. Coincidences happen if people throw cigarette butts or climber who forgot to turn off the fire. While deliberate carried out with the aim of clearing the biasasnya used to open land for planting oil palm.

Wildfires have a detrimental impact. Although for some parties are menguntunngkan impact, but far more disadvantages than the advantages. Forest fires resulting in mass mortality for some species of animals and plants. Burnt forest also means the loss of habitat for the wildlife of the forest dwellers.

Forest fires will emit smoke containing carbon. Carbon-carbon produced will fly into the atmosphere and stays there. The release of carbon that occurs this will contribute will damage the climate and raise the temperature at the earth’s surface.

 

The smoke arising from a fire contains a number of chemical elements that did not deserve to be inhaled by living things. Each of smoke arising from forest fires contains sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, akrelein, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, benzene and ozone. The contents are highly dangerous if inhaled by humans, especially for those who are elderly or infants.

Forest fires are a serious problem and does not only affect the people of Indonesia, but also in neighboring communities. For us climbers, do occasionally leave a campfire switched on. Make sure the bonfire was extinguished when we left the camp site.

Land Damage Mitigation Efforts

When no errors are found, then a mandatory thing we should do is immediately taken. To be what? Of course, so the damage was not worse. If left to the soil degradation that occurs will widen even get worse so it can be detrimental to humans. Efforts countermeasures do humans are as follows: earthquake survival kit

  1. Recycle

The first way to do an effort penanggulanagan damage to the soil is to do recycling. Recycling is intended for garbage, non-organic waste in order to reduce pollutants in the soil. Recycling of plastic waste, for example, can be changed mendai various helpful items badi everyday life. Plastic bottles can be reused to create various crafts, and reused as a pot or tembat goods.

Used plastic drink or used detergent can be used to make various handicrafts such as bags, wallets and so forth. Garbage, plastic waste is sometimes also recycled into new plastic thus saving raw materials in making plastic products. In the school environment, today’s children have been very creative in making recycled products. Even the subjects of skills almost always teach students to create a variety of crafts from scrap materials into goods that have a selling value.

  1. Accommodating wastewater

In addition to recycling, efforts to combat soil degradation others are accommodating liquid waste residues production activities as well as everyday activities. of course this applies to the waste that has liquid form. Liquid waste may be generated from industrial production and household activities. Liquid waste should not be directly in the exhaust to the ground because it is very dangerous and will cause damage to the soil in a given time period. therefore the liquid waste must be collected and be processed further to make it more environmentally friendly and not harmful to the land and for the living beings on Earth.

If the wastewater generated from domestic activities, the waste must be disposed of to the place or the right channel. If the liquid waste is not hazardous to the environment and living beings, it can be discharged into the waterway, such as schools and also the river which will ultimately lead to the sea. However, if the liquid waste generated by the activities of the plant in large quantities and contain chemicals that are harmful, it is necessary first processing that waste is to be neutral and harmless. after being processed and have a neutral, then be discharged through the channels provided.

  1. Replacing chemicals with organic or natural materials

We all know that the waste from the average chemicals have hazardous properties. therefore, it would be more safe when we use natural materials to be more friendly for the environment and living beings. There are so many alternatives to chemicals that humans use in daily life. Let’s start with fuel, for example, the fuel we use to move our vehicles have a very big role for air pollution in the world. Even so many on this Earth pollution, the ozone layer which protects the earth much sprung a leak.

As a result, the incoming sunlight filtering and did not experience many losses that can be generated and made many types of skin diseases. Therefore there is no harm if we make use of alternative energy that is more friendly, such as using biogas or bioethanol as a substitute for fuel oil. Now many people who develop alternative energy Adri natural raw materials, making it more environmentally friendly.

  1. Rehabilitation of soil physical damage

Efforts to control damage to land one of which is the rehabilitation of the physical properties of the soil damage. Damage to the physical properties of soil are generally caused by the deterioration of the soil structure. Damage to soil structure is preceded by decreasing the stability of soil aggregates.

It is caused by piling up rainwater and runoff. The decline in the quality of soil aggregate stability was accompanied by a decrease in content of organic materials, the activity of rooting vegetation and the number of soil microorganisms. To repair the damage to the physical properties of the soil, can dilaukan actions as follows:

  • Tillage periodically to avoid ground movement
  • Increasing soil organic matter content through the dry leaves and vegetation land cover
  • Increased plant diversity in order to improve the distribution system peakaran
  1. Rehabilitation chemical and biological soil damage

In addition to damage physical properties, soil also can undergo chemical and biological damage. Chemical and biological damage to the soil is characterized by a decrease in organic matter content and soil acid levels rise. Corrective actions on the ground is done by giving straw and lime. Giving straw could increase the activity of microbes that can addle soil materials and also produce organic material. While the administration of calcium may help neutralize the acid levels in the soil.

  1. Remediation of soil contamination

Pollution prevention efforts more soil is soil contamination remediation. This is an attempt remediation activities or actions taken to clean up contaminated soil surface. Remediation activity is divided into three, namely as follows:

  • Situ remediation , the contaminated land cleanup efforts without having to move or stay at the location of the pollution alone.
  • Ex-situ remediation , is cleaning contaminated land by digging the contaminated soil and transferred to another location. Then, after being transferred at a more secure then it can only be done in the process of cleaning contaminated soil.
  • Bioremediation , a process of cleaning the pollution of soil with the help of microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. The objective of this activity is bioremediation to break or reduce the influence of contaminants.

Due to the occurrence of Landslide and Causes

Natural disasters are natural events  which causes losses at various angles. These natural disasters can be caused by purely natural occurrences as well as due to the human activity. There are many types of natural disasters in the world such as volcanoes , earthquakes, floods, landslides, forest fires , and so forth. Natural disasters are very often struck in the territory of Indonesia.

See also: earthquake preparedness kit

On this occasion we will discuss more on one of the natural disaster, the landslide. We will discuss what are the causes of land longor and also what are the impacts that may result from the existence of the landslide.

Occurrence Causes Landslide

Landslides not happen just like that. Of course, this disaster could occur because of Adaiah various factors that contribute to this disaster. What are the factors or things that favor the occurrence of landslides this? Here are a few things that cause landslides:

  • The existence of heavy rain and the duration of time long enough

Rain is the main cause of landslides. The threat of landslides is usually begin in November. This is because of previous dry season which will result in surface water (read: the characteristics of the surface water ) to evaporate in large numbers. This evaporation will then cause the appearance of pores of the soil and also the cracks. When it rains, water quickly fills the cracks and make the soil inflate rapidly. It will also cause the water experiencing saturation in a very short time. This is a very trigger landslides, especially in areas which do not exist at all .

  • Yag soil structure is less dense and less dense

Soil structure  was also affecting landslides. Soil structure is less dense and less thick will cause potential landslides. The type of soil that has a less dense structure is clay or clay who has a thickness of more than 2.5 meters and a slope angle of more than 220. In addition to this land has a huge potential to be landslides, soil is also very susceptible to ground movement because it will become very soft when wet and will crack if exposed to heat.

  • Less powerful rock structure

In addition to the structure of the soil, it also affects the rock structure terjadiya longor ground. Sedimentary volcanic and sedimentary rocks sized sand and gravel mixture kurag generally strong so easy to landslides.

  • Type of land governance

Land that has a steep slope would very easily happen tenah created landslides than land terracing.

  • soil erosion

The presence of soil erosion or soil erosion would greatly favor the occurrence of landslides. This of course will make the soil density to be reduced. Soil erosion is usually go carried by river water and as a result of deforestation .

  • There vibrations

Vibrations strike the Earth is one factor that is very encouraging landslides. These vibrations can be derived from earthquakes, volcanic explosions, machines, as well as traffic flow.

  • There is an additional burden

Longor strong ground potential will occur if the ground slopes there are additional burdens such as buildings and vehicles passing.

  • The water of the lake and the dam are shrinking
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Lake water and the dam are shrinking rapidly will cause the retaining force slope becomes lost.

  • There is a heap at the cliff metri

Soil embankment former rock cuts that have not been compacted perfectly able to make the landslides in the region.

Those are some things that can cause landslides. In addition to the causes mentioned above, there are many other good causes we are aware or not aware of.